THE SYNERGY MODEL (The Messiah Machine)
by Achmed A. W. Khammas
If on the earth`s surface a body is moved from one point to another, gravitation has only an indirect effect through friction on this body so long as it is on the same level of potential energy. However, if one wants to move the body's level in a direction opposite to gravitational influence (=upward transport), a considerable expenditure of energy would be required. The expended energy is not lost, but remains stored in the body in form of increased potential energy. The actual percentage of total energy stored on the new potential energy level varies directly with the degree of efficiency of the transport system used. The quantity of possible energy reclamation (Example : Pump-fed power station) also depends on the degree of efficiency of the system converting the stored potential energy into other forms of energy or exergy (e.g. falling water into rotational energy and then into electrical energy, the most commonly known exergy form.)
Calm water has a very high surface tension. Gravitation affects all molecules equally strongly, thus permitting the surface to level itself in an ideal manner. Seen in a planetary context, the sea level surface is considered to be the "zero level" of all altitude or depth measurement. The upward transport of water onto a higher level requires a certain expenditure of energy. We contend that this expenditure of energy is especially high in those cases where in an "upward transport" a partial amount of water must be detached from the whole system. In this case, the cohesion counteracts the upward transport and thus increases the necessary energy requirement to a considerable extent.
This paper deals with a method of transport which eliminates the necessity for breaking the cohesive forces in water. This "transport system" is based on a topological deformation of water, resulting from rotation but without application of pressure, in which the cohesive forces are not affected during upward transport.
A vital element of this transport system is basically not new; it is known as the Newtonian Bucket Experiment. However, in his time Newton had not paid any attention to the possible practical use of spirally rising water. He mainly considered his experiment to be a proof of "Absolute rotation". Since then - and to this day - it seems that no one has dealt anymore intensively with this experiment, with the possible exception of Berkeley, who dismissed Newton's Thesis, asserting the "Bucket Experiment" to be a proof of the "Relativity of Movement". No one seemed to be interested either in the technical or the practical aspects.
The physical concept:
Continuously acting centrifugal, centripetal and shearing forces result in a helical movement opposite to the gravitational direction. Although continuous bucket rotation releases all of these forces, it releases no strong pressure or suction forces, thus considerably minimizing the losses due to friction.
Determining the necessary number of revolutions does not present a problem. The rotating body's minimum number of revolutions depends exclusively on the ratio of height to diameter. Aesthetical calculations result in single-digit number of revolutions per second. Therefore, it is easy to calculate the optimal number of revolutions adequate to the material, to the type of storage as well as to other parameters. These low number of revolutions are independent of the actual dimensions of the rotating body.
The water-formed paraboloid in the rotating container steepens with the increase in speed, its base dropping lower and lower as water is displaced sideways and upwards. The aforementioned low number of revolutions are enough to deform the water topologically in such a way that the inside surface of the produced hollow space approaches an upright angle of 90 degrees to the calm surface.
The entire system calls to mind those designs for space stations which generate a (centrifugal) artificial gravitational force through their artificially created axial rotation; thus ensuring an almost normal life aboard. However, the bucket experiment's most interesting aspect is its application " W I T H I N " a gravitational field, upon which the rotational effect is superimposed. Topological deformation causes the water to literally "creep up the walls" inside the rotation field. As soon as the container' s rim is reached, the unrestrained centrifugal force thrusts the water over the rim. If this upper rim were to be equipped with a (stationary) collecting basin, a certain quantity of water of a higher potential energy level would be obtained.
This effect, of course, could only be achieved by first expending a certain amount of energy into the rotation procedure.
Let us proceed on the assumption that the water quantity in the bucket is limited and that the bucket itself is at rest. Under these conditions, a relatively large amount of energy would be required in order to lift up the water in the described way. It would be a completely different case, however, if the established rotation (after expenditure of start and acceleration energy) is only to be kept constant and if there is a constant supply of water at the lower end of the bucket. The energy expenditure necessary to maintain the flow equilibrium is substantially lower than the amount required for start and acceleration, while the total-mass-stabilizing flow equilibrium is materially assured by the "Effect of communicating tubes". If one part of the rotation container is situated beneath the level of feed water, then the water - with a corresponding tube connection and possible axial infeed at the lower end of the rotating cylinder - will flow into the container without any additional application of energy.
A further decrease in energy expenditure in the maintenance of rotation can be achieved by reducing the number of revolutions of the cylinder to a subcritical speed . This speed is reached as soon as the water is no longer thrust over the upper rim of the rotating container, but moves only within the rotating container as a standing wall of water. Due to the previously integrated continuous water supply at the bottom end of the rotating body even the most minor increase in speed would reestablish the interrupted flow equilibrium such that each drop that is thrust over the top of the rim would be replaced simultaneously at the bottom.
Now, another closer look at the subcritical speed. With this number of revolutions applied, an overflow at the upper rim does not yet occur - unless we were to artificially generate a certain pressure on the water, an incompressible medium. This pressure would immediately thrust the water over the upper rim because it would present the water with its only alternative exit.
First, we assume that the water feed at the lower end is (still) closed and that the rotating body is turning with subcritical speed. Since the water quantity is limited in this case, the base of the created rotation paraboloid sinks to a level b e n e a t h the still water surface which is identical with the feed water level. With the water indeed open, however, any drop of the falling water level results in an immediate rise in indeed water pressure with its assumed constant level. Since, according to physical laws, this pressure acts upon the entire water quantity within the rotating cylinder, this pressure could represent exactly that kind of energy which is required to thrust the water over the upper rim of the container even at a subcritical number of revolutions.
With the described method we achieve a constant upward flow, opposite to the pull of gravitation, which results in a constant flow equilibrium when a constant number of revolutions is applied. After providing for acceleration, our direct energy expenditure is limited to the compensation of various friction losses, while the upward transport itself takes place through the permanently renewed pressure of the feeding water reservoir ( Sea, lake etc.).
The hydrological cycle is closed by the subsequent use of increased potential energy by means of water turbines. With this procedure one can reconvert the gravitation effect - now again uninfluenced by rotation-based centrifugal and centripetal forces - into utilizable electric current.
It cannot be left unmentioned that doubts have been raised from various sides concerning the practicability of this system. This machine itself prohibits an uncritical application of the Thermodynamic Principles . In the meantime, however, positive remarks have been made which refer to recent discoveries in physics and chemistry. Indeed, the Belgian scientist Prigogine was recently awarded the Nobel prize for just this particular theory, according to which the application of the Thermodynamic Principles is only allowable in c 1 o s e d systems. If we reflect on the conditions established by Prigogine for an opposite, O P E N S Y S T E M, we ascertain, that these conditions are completely met by the transport system described here:
An uninterrupted flow of MATTER and ENERGY through the system
What represents the uninterrupted supply of chemically-bound energy and/or light in an non-entropic form of human, animal or plant nature, is carried out in this very system by the water itself : it transports its immanent and constantly renewed heat energy, the sources of which are mainly solar radiation and geothermal energy - in addition to the process heat of all biological and mechanical cycles found in the upper layers of the world's oceans.
Certain similarities exist between the above described transport system and the universally feared tornados. Due to their exceptionally high revolution speeds, these tornados do represent an extreme form of general turbulence, but they also show very clearly that heat energy itself can transform itself d i r e c t 1 y into mechanical energy within a cyclonic field, even if only in low percentages. Quantitatively considered, however, they add up to enormous amounts. Several authors with insights into the latest research in the field speak of a synergistic self-organization of matter, which in this practical case, leads to a "self-energization" of the cyclonic structure !
It is pointed out that even minimal temperature differences are sufficient to lift up water molecules to astonishing heights. Indeed, the entire population living on the surface of the planet lives from this low-temperature transport. Evaporation lifts millions of tons of water up hourly, without any pressure or suction forces in a technical sense - and that to heights of several thousand meters...
The successful combination of two old and well-known principles with recent discoveries in physics opens up the possibility of water transport ( from the ZERO water level upward), due to the physical characteristics of a cyclonic field, requiring extraordinarily low operating energies. Based on the assumption that a self-energization takes place, these must act - contrary to the first impression - in a decelerating not an accelerating manner.
It remains to be seen which actual figures future pilot plants will achieve. Only then will the efficiency of the suggested rotation transport system be concretely verified. However, experiments with relatively small models have already indicated that the installation of centrifugal mass or disk flywheel on the rotating cylinder would pay off not only as regards to stability and temporary energy storage. The heavier the empty rotating container, the greater the water storage in the slow "subcritical speed range", thus also increasing the water quantity thrust over the upper rim due to the pressure of feed water. Due to the additional empty mass, the start-energy investment necessarily increases, but this is more than compensated by the higher equilibrium forces. The necessary energy required for further operation is hardly important because of its low percentage rate.
Apart from the above described cohesion, adhesion should also be mentioned. Without this adhesion, the water would not move at all upon the start of the rotation (e.g. which is the case with HELIUM II near absolute zero ). In the aforementioned system, inside friction is a basic precondition for the functioning of the system. As proximity to the rotation center increases, the shearing forces progressively decrease, thus clearly indicating the difference between a centrifugal rotation acceleration (mixer, pumps etc. ) and a centripetal acceleration "from the circumference" which I have named "implosive", refering to V. Schauberger.
Comparing the above system with a conventional centrifugal pump or the possible mathematical or physical conclusions deriving from such a pump, leaves the impression that one intends to explain the flight behavior of a jet with the knowledge gained from ballooning.
Gravitation, in our eyes, should no longer be considered negatively as a "foe to be overcome". On the contrary, no upward transport would probably be possible without gravitation and certainly no subsequent energy transformation or energy generation would take place.
As a theoretical basis for a future mathematical analysis I have formulated the following:
NON-ENTROPIC SYSTEMS ARE ANTI-GRAVITATIONAL
The abovementioned system offers numerous possible applications. The system could be applied either as a transport component in pump-fed storage stations, for quick filling of sluices or for larger irrigation projects ; in connection with other technologies, it could be applied in the field of sea-water desalinization and sewage treatments or in other projects. The most important aspect , however, will be the system's utilization in the field of exergy exploitation from various renewable "environmental energies". An important aspect in an economic, technical and ecological respect context.